new england patriots ready for deflategate to being again 2015

It seems that DeflateGate is not a big story now that the Super Bowl has been over for about a month. Shockingly, the Patriots were not banned from the Super Bowl and the Colts sent in as a replacement at the last minute. No, the New England Patriots were allowed to play, with every player cleared to be on the field including Tom Brady. Seattle ended up losing the game at the end and New England got to bask in the glory of another NFL Championship.

The investigation is ongoing just like I predicted. NFL investigator Ted Wells should just take his time, which I’m sure he will do. If he wants to wait until 2017 to report his findings that will sit well with me. In fact if Roger Goodell sent out a press release tomorrow stating that he has ended the investigation into the Patriots’ possible tampering with the AFC Championship Game balls, I’m fine with it. Goodell could just come out and say that since fans really don’t care and the AFC Title Game is over and done with, we are going to stop wasting money on this farce of an investigation. At least that would be the honest thing to do. Fans don’t care, no records will be changed, and the New England Patriots are the Super Bowl Champions for the 2014 season, period.

I have a feeling I know what the findings will be if the report on DeflateGate ever comes out. Maybe Ted Wells can draw a check for the rest of his life on this one case and we will never see a report at all. But if old Ted ever wraps it up, the general findings will be that there were indeed footballs under inflated, but no one can be found at fault, especially the New England Patriots. I would be less shocked if the report accused the Colts of sabotage in an effort to make New England look like cheaters, rather than the Pats being found guilty!

RELATED NEWS
2019 Australian Open: Andy Murray's last plus who to watch

DeflateGate has become a national joke at this point. Everyone from David Letterman, to SNL, and even Matt Damon and Ben Affleck on Jimmy Kimmel have made light of the situation. Unless a hi-def video pops up that shows Tom Brady and his supermodel wife sucking the air out of some footballs, the nation doesn’t want to be bothered with DeflateGate anymore. The Colts were blown out, game is over, and the Super Bowl has played out. For a scandal to have consequences, it has to have a conclusion before the 24 hour news networks get tired of it. No updates equals no story. And that’s just how Roger Goodell likes it.

For anyone running a big company out there, take note of this NFL scandal. This is how you handle it. Roger Goodell’s game plan to quiet the storm over DeflateGate should sit right alongside Belichick’s Hall Of Fame defensive scheme from Super Bowl XXV. This scandal involved one of the highest profile teams in the NFL, one of the best quarterbacks of all time, and the third biggest game of the season. Yet all has gone quiet. Well played Mr. Commissioner.

29 COMMENTS

  1. Pete, I agree with you that is a great way to do it by measuring the mass, the fact is the footballs that were used were wet and thus this is not a valid test in those conditions.. The key issue is not deflation because no one deflated any footballs the Laws of Physics prove that, the key issue is far to many people don’t know the pressure of a gad is a function of temperature.
    I regards to word definitions, you’re correct, and I was clear in noting footballs lose pressure due to temperature change and not deflate, however we’re speaking to the masses, people I like my dad (NFL fans), who don’t necessarily know the difference between psi measurements, air pressure, deflation/inflation and weight, many think it’s all the same..
    Here’what i said: “When temperature drops, so does air pressure, is this really that much of a surprise?”
    “It all says the same thing, no one CHEATED, just a lot of misinformed people who didn’t know the pressure of a gas is a function it’s temperature.”
    PS: in regards to my lenthy posts, they were written to help people lean, allow the readers to see the Laws of Physics, follow along the calculations and see actual tests proving the science works…

  2. Scott Hyde Contrary to your accusation, I wasn’t “asserting” that the Patriots did anything.  I was simply offering a much easier way to  determine if any air was removed, without all the unnecessary assumptions about atmospheric conditions.  It’s a pretty basic process to prove that no air was removed without the need to ever know the temperature on the field or in the ball.  So if anyone is over thinking this, you may want to review your lengthy responses.
    And if you keep claiming that footballs “actually do deflate on their own” you may want to look up the definition of “deflate”, i.e.,  “to release air or gas from”

  3. SUBJECT: The laws of physics do not lie or cheat, or know whose team is playing
    The Ideal Gas Law: Says the pressure of a gas is a function of temperature and volume. “IF” the footballs from “BOTH” teams were measured indoors at room temperature to be within 12.5 – 13.5 psi and then BOTH taken out doors in 20-25 degree less temperature or greater, the footballs from BOTH teams had to deflate a approx. 1.2 – 1.3 psi at a minimum, that’s a FACT of science.
    Therefore, the NFL’s rule/procedures do not make sense since the refs measure and approve inside and then take them outside, it is NOT possible to maintain same air pressure in any fixed device such as a football, basketball or tires in different temperatures (FACT).
    FACT: Per the IDEAL GAS LAW, pressure of a gas is a function of temperature, when the temperature drops (or rises), so does the air pressure inside a football, just like the tires on your car. The ideal gas law is often written as: PV=nRT, where the letters denote pressure, volume, amount (in moles), ideal gas constant, and temperature of the gas, respectively.
    SEE LINK (Ideal Gas Law- attached): http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hb…/kinetic/idegas.html
    Thus, if the volume is fixed and the amount of gas (air) stays the same (like in a football, basketball, or a tire) then as the temperature drops there is a corresponding drop in pressure on the other side of the equation, that’s the science and a law of physics.
    Also, there is a smaller effect of vapor pressure, (air has water in it) and there is additional pressure loss due to the fact that the water in the air will take up less volume with respect to temperature than an ideal gas. Additionally, when it is raining, there is more water vapor in the air, thus a slightly larger effect of vapor pressure loss because of the rain.
    CALCULATIONS: Should be done using absolute pressure and absolute temperature scales. Pressure absolute equals pressure gauge plus atmospheric pressure (14.7 psi). Absolute temperature in degree Rankine equals ambient temperature in degrees Fahrenheit plus 459.67 (add 460 convert to deg Rankine). Using the assumption that volume and density do not change significantly, the ideal gas law results in P/T=constant or P1/T1 = P2/T2 or P2/P1=T2/T1.
    CALCULATION EXAMPLE:
    a. P1 start pressure 12.5 psi
    b. T1 start temperature 72 deg F
    c. T2 end temperature 45 deg F
    d. P2 end pressure is calculated for
    MATH:
    1. P2/P1 = T2/T1
    2. (P2 + 14.7) / (12.5 + 14.7) = (45 + 460) / (72 + 460)
    3. P2 + 14.7 = 25.82
    4. P2 = 11.12 psi
    RESULT:
    Football inflated to 12.5 psi at 72 degree temperature, taken outside at 45 degree temperature, the pressure drops to 11.12 psi, thus a loss of 1.38 psi, due to a 27 degree temperature change only, this does not include vapor pressure loss.
    EXAMPLES:
    Example 1: If the footballs were inflated at 72 degree F to 12.5 psi gauge and then cooled to 45 degree F, there would be a pressure change (loss) of approximately 1.38 psi.
    Example 2: If the footballs were inflated at 75 degree F to 12.5 psi gauge and then cooled to 50 degree F, there would be a pressure change (loss) of approximately 1.27 psi.
    Example 3: If the footballs were inflated at 68 degree F to 12.5 psi gauge and then cooled to 45 degree F, there would be a pressure change (loss) of approximately 1.19 psi
    Example 4: If the footballs were inflated at 80 degree F to 12.5 psi gauge and then cooled to 45 degree F, there would be a pressure change (loss) of approximately 1.76 psi.
    Example 5: If the footballs (for Colts?) were inflated at 70 degree F to 13.5 psi gauge and then cooled to 50 degree F, there would be a pressure change (loss) of approximately 1.06 psi
    CONCLUSIONS: Any football that started out in the NFL’s psi range between 12.5 – 13.5 psi at room temperature, that was later put in 20-25 degree less temperature or more, is no longer in that range. That’s not me, not opinion or theory, that’s the laws of physics. Anything more than a 20-25 degree temperature difference between the time they measured the footballs indoors or greater on the field, that means any football that started out between 12.5 and 13.5 PSI indoors, is going to be less than 12.5 psi on the field. That’s not a guess, that’s not my opinion, that’s a FACT of science and it is indisputable.
    COROLLARY: “IF” the New England Patriots cheated, all the footballs would have measured approx. 10 psi or lower at halftime. 12.5 (psi start) – 1.0 (psi cheat) – 1.4 (psi temp effect) = 10.1 psi. “IF” none measured below 10.5 psi at half, it is NOT possible for Patriots to have cheated. Hence, the science proves they could not have cheated.
    CONCLUSION: “IF” none of the Patriots footballs measured below 10.5 psi at halftime, tampering is NOT possible.
    THE NFL HAS A PROBLEM (???) to RESOLVE: The NFL rule/procedures/regulations say the footballs have to be within a narrow 1 psi range 2 hours and 15 minutes before the game and given to the refs (at room temperature) for approval, not outside in the cold. It is a physical IMPOSSIBILITY to maintain that narrow range when there is more than a 20-25 degree temperature difference outdoors. Per the ideal gas law PV = nRT, the pressure of a gas (air) is a function of temperature, so when temperature of a gas (air) is lowered, there is a corresponding drop in pressure. The same applies if temperature is raised in reverse.
    The NFL cannot have a rule about the air pressure of a football, unless it also states the temperature and atmospheric conditions the measurements are to be taken, because the pressure of a gas is a function of temperature and its atmospheric conditions, , it is NOT POSSIBLE for the air pressure of a football to be the same at two different temperatures.
    All we really know through the news reports is the Patriots football’s we’re pumped to 12.5 psi indoors and then we’re taken out outdoors to a 25-30 degree less temp environment by halftime. In Foxboro, it was approx. 51 degrees at game time, 45 degrees at half, and 44 degrees at the end of game.

  4. t seems like everyone is asking the wrong question? The real question is; if in fact someone did tamper with the footballs before the game, what would they have measured outside at halftime in a different temperature and atmospheric condition?   The answer is only 8-10 psi.
    The laws of physics do not lie.  Deflategate doesn’t hold up to the FACTS, see the VIDEO video below PROVING IT and READ the attachments with actual data..
    And we’re all STUPID for thinking there is some conspiracy, without thinking it through.  For those haters out there calling professional coaches and players liars and cheaters, you need a lesson in science.
    FACT:  Per the IDEAL GAS LAW, when the temperature drops, so does the air pressure inside a football, just like the tires on your car.  The ideal gas law is often written as: PV=nRT, where the letters denote pressure, volume, amount (in moles), ideal gas constant, and temperature of the gas, respectively
    Thus, if the volume is fixed and stays the same like in a football, or a tire, then as the temperature drops there is a corresponding drop in pressure on the other side of the equation, that’s the science.
    Also, there is a smaller effect of vapor pressure, (air has water in it) and there  is additional pressure loss due to the fact that the water in the air will take up less volume with respect to temperature than an ideal gas.  Additionally, when it is raining, there is more water vapor in the air, thus a slightly larger effect because of the rain.
    Calculations should be done using absolute pressure and absolute temperature scales. Pressure absolute equals pressure gauge plus atmospheric pressure (14.7 psi). Absolute temperature in deg Rankine equals ambient temperature in degrees Fahrenheit plus 459.67. Using the assumption that volume and density do not change significantly, the ideal gas law results in P/T=constant or P2/P1=T2/T1.
    FORMULA EXAMPLE:
    a.  P1 start pressure 12.5 psi
    b.  T1 start temperature 70 degrees Fahrenheit
    c.  T2 end temperature 45 degrees Fahrenheit
    d.  P2 unknown and is calculated for
    1.  P2/P1 = T2/T1
    2.  (P2 + 14.7) / (12.5 + 14.7) = (45 + 459.67) / (70 + 459.67)
    3.  P2 + 14.7 = 25.92
    4.  P2 = 11.22 psi
    Example 1:  If the footballs were inflated at 75 deg F to 12.5 psi gauge and then cooled to 50 deg F, there would be a pressure change of approximately 1.3 psi.
    Example 2:  If the footballs were inflated at 68 deg F to 12.5 psi gauge and then cooled to 45 deg F, there would be a pressure change of approximately 1.2 psi
    Example 3:  If the footballs were inflated at 80 deg F to 12.5 psi gauge and then cooled to 45 deg F, there would be a pressure change of approximately 1.8 psi.
    Example 4:   If the footballs (for Colts?)
    were inflated at 70 deg F to 13.5 psi gauge and then cooled to 50 deg F, there would be a pressure change of approximately 1.1 psi
    RESULT:  Any football that started out in the NFL’s PSI range at room temperature that was later put in 25-30 degree less temperature or more, is no longer in that range, that’s not me, not the Patriots, that’s the laws of physics.  Anything more than a 25-30 degree temperature difference between the time they measured the footballs indoors or greater on the field, that means any football that started out between 12.5 and 13.5 PSI indoors, is going to be less than12.5 PSI on the field.  That’s not a guess, that’s not my opinion, that’s a FACT of science. 
    _
    DON’T BELIEVE ME:  Try it for yourself, take an NFL football and inflate it up to13.5 PSI indoors at room temperature and then put it outside in 25-30 degrees less temperature for an hour and see if it drops below 12.5 PSI?  It does every time…  See the video below and the articles attached below, some high school kids tested them and made a video, and one of the professors tested it, imagine that they did actual TESTS to prove it…  Since that’s the case, then league’s rule with a range of 12.5-13.5 PSI and further stating they may not be altered after they are approved, is impossible to meet and maintain that air pressure range in cold weather conditions on the field, when the testing is done at 2 different temperatures. Most likely, whoever wrote the rule, never thought about how footballs lose or gain air pressure due to atmospheric and temperature change or considered the process of testing indoors in a controlled environment and then playing outside in the cold weather… 
    QUESTION:  When in the entire life span of the NFL has anybody ever measured the PSI of a football both before the game inside and at halftime out in cold weather???  Answer:  Never that I’m aware of.  So if it’s never been measured before, how can anyone call someone a liar or a cheater, if they have no evidence or reference to what happens to the air pressure in a football going from the warm locker room to the field out in the cold… 
    Far too many people are just making wild assumptions and accusations, just do a test and prove it for yourself, like I did… 
    Trust the science…  When temperature drops, so does air pressure, is this really that much of a surprise? Really

  5. Pete, that’s exactly what happened they measured the pressure of the footballs at halftime when they only had 15 minutes, no matter if they were taken indoors or measured on the field, or brought them back in the locker room at halftime, they did it when they did not have enough time for the footballs to come back-up to equilibrium after they were on the field for an hour and 45 minutes where it was in tilly 51 degrees and raining and dropping down to 45 degrees during the first half.
    My math, the calculations and the temperatures (51 gametime, 45 halftime, 44 degress end of fame) are exactly correct including the atmospheric pressure (14.66) for Foxboro Massachusetts that night.
    We cannot measure the weight of the footballs because it was raining and each football had a different amount of water content on them at halftime, they were completely dry at the beginning when they were first gave them to the referees 2 hours and 15 minutes before the game.
    I worry about guys like you for over thinking this, it is not possible for anyone to have cheated.
    If in fact the Patriots had cheated and took air out as ot is assumed, the footballs would have measured below 10.5 psi on the field. Math: 12.5 start – 1.4 temp effect – 1.0 cheat = 10.1 psi; since none measured that low it is not possible for the Patriots to have cheated. If the Patriots did what you assert they would have started at 12.5 psi and then down to 11.5 by the cheating effect, and then they would have been dropped from 11.5 on down with the change in temperature on the field, none of that happened. because they did not drop that low.
    Therefore due to the laws of physics it is not possible for them to have cheated.
    Deflate-gate will be remembered as one of the greatest learning opportunities in sports history, the media and millions of NFL fans will LEARN a lifelong lesson because of Deflate-gate. 
    For example: Mike Florio @ProFootballTalk said on National TV right before the Super Bowl, that “they (footballs) don’t deflate on their own.” Nice try Mike, they actually do deflate (lose pressure, not lose amount of air) on their own, because the air pressure of a football is a function of the temperature it is in.  He must have forgotten his high school science class lessons where they proved the Ideal Gas Law (PV=nRT):  The pressure of a gas (air) is a function of its temperature and volume, and is a Law of Physics.
    Bill Nye, the supposed science guy said the only way to take air out of a football was using a needle. Technically he’s correct, the needle takes air out/in, what he failed to mention was the air pressure of a fixed volume device like a football, basketball, soccer ball or a tire is a function of its temperature, and going from room temperature (approx. 72 degrees) to a 45 degree field and raining at halftime does make a big impact on the air pressure in a football.  Any football that started out at 12.5 psi will lose 1.38 psi, just due to the temperature change alone.  This does not include vapor pressure loss, because air has water vapor in it which would cause additional pressure loss in a colder environment.
    Bill Nye was totally WRONG and mislead the public when he spoke to GOOD MORNING AMERICA, trying to discredit Bill Belichick’s science saying: “rubbing the football, I don’t think you can change the pressure.”  Totally FASLE, rubbing the football creates friction, friction creates heat, adding heat changes the pressure of a football.  It’s funny how the football coach was correct explaining the science and Bill Nye the supposed “science guy” was wrong, maybe he was just being a Seahawks fan.
    Sounds like because of deflate-gate Mike Florio, Bill Nye and so many others in the incredibly uninformed or uneducated media like: Troy Aikman, Mark Brunell, Cris Carter, Jerry Rice, Jerome Bettis, Joe Montana, Mike Francesa, the New York newspapers, the NFL home offices and the NFL referee’s will all have learned these things since they mishandled the situation, misspoke on National TV and reported in the national media.  
    Even the NFL is just finding out that their rule/regulations for football pressure with a narrow 1 psi range 12.5 – 13.5 psi is IMPOSSIBLE to maintain when they measure at room temperature and then move the footballs on to a field where there is a 20 degree or greater temperature difference.  Any football that started out in that range, will no longer be in that range, if it is taken into a new environment that is 20 degrees different or more (FACT).  The NFL cannot have a rule regarding football air pressure, unless they also have a rule about the temperature and atmospheric conditions the measurements are taken in.  Something they will surely have to fix and amend for next year.
    See Boston University “real science guy” Martin Schwaltz’s Pressure Calculator:  Football deflation due to temperature change, he is way kool:  http://t.co/9WL6HLE580 
    MUST SEE VIDEO of high school kids doing a physical test and proving the Ideal Gas Law works and the Patriots didn’t CHEAT:  https://t.co/OJBRilsyxZ
    VIDEO MIDE TECHNOLOGY COMPANY using calibrated equipment recreating the change in football pressure from room temperature to game time conditions of 51 degrees F (not halftime when it was 45 degrees and raining) and proving footballs lose pressure when the temperature is lowered, thus the Ideal Gas Law works in the real world:  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gkKlr7YOlig
    4TH GRADE SCIENCE PROJECT Debunks DeflateGate, Clears Patriots (Video): http://nesn.com/2015/02/fourth-graders-science-project-debunks-deflategate-clears-patriots/
    REAL SCIENCE:  They passed these out at the Super Bowl showing the Ideal Gas Laws calculations, its 100% accurate except for spelling of Goodell.  http://t.co/6FFolcKNjn
    Look up the IDEAL GAS LAW and teach your kids the facts of science and the Laws of Physics:  http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/kinetic/idegas.html
    For all of you who just have opinions:  READ these articles and maybe you’ll LEARN something you can teach your children, I doubt these real scientists care about anything except the facts:
    1.  http://scienceblogs.com/principles/2015/01/23/tom-brady-and-the-ideal-gas-law-physics-of-deflategate/
    Note:  Continue to read the comments below in this link, where other scientists chime in, Bill Nye should have read this link before he mispoke, and made incorrect calculations forgetting to use absolute temperature and absolute pressure scales
    2.  http://www.realclearpolitics.com/video/2015/01/25/carnegie_mellon_affiliated_lab_weather_alone_could_have_reduced_pressure_in_patriots_footballs.html
    See these links: 
    1. http://www.profootballlogic.com/articles/the-science-of-football-deflation/?fb_action_ids=10205901519921559&fb_action_types=og.comment
    2. http://m.wcvb.com/…/weather-a-factor-in-deflating-…/30871774
    3. http://www.wcsh6.com/…/deflategate-patriots-foo…/22174475/we
    The Laws of Physics are INDISPUTABLE and do not lie, cheat or know whose team is playing, this should have been pretty simple stuff to figure out from day one of this story.
    It all says the same thing, no one CHEATED, just a lot of misinformed people who didn’t know the pressure of a gas is a function it’s temperature.

  6. Scott Hyde “Thus, if the volume is fixed and the amount of gas (air) stays the same” 
    But isn’t that the whole debate?  Aren’t the Patriots being accused of changing the amount of air in the ball (deflation), not simply of being in possession of ball with low pressure?

    As others have pointed out, there is a difference between a pressure change and deflation.  Using the gas laws to prove there was no deflation by first assuming the mass remained constant is like trying to prove Joe Blow didn’t commit a crime by first assuming he didn’t commit a crime.

    And all the physics arguments and video demonstrations seem to be doing just that.  They all show that pressure goes down with temperature, but they don’t demonstrate that the amount of air hasn’t changed – – the whole issue of debate.  That’s why it doesn’t prove a whole lot to take mass out of the equation by simplifying the gas laws to P2/P1=T2/T1. 

    Adding to that is all the speculation of what the temperature was during the game, or at halftime.  But none of that should really matter, unless you are going to actually measure the pressure at that temperature out on the field.  And if someone did that, then shame on them.  I kinda doubt an intelligent official would go inside to get a gauge and pump, just to go back outside to measure the balls in the rain.  The reports say that they were taken back inside.  Still, it’s anyone’s guess just how much the balls warmed up before halftime testing.  Another reason not to speculate on temperature.

    Seems to me, a much more valid test would be to simply take temperature out of the equation by measuring pressure both before and after the game at the same room temperature.  Then your equation would be P2/P1=n2/n1.  Since we know P1 was a passing grade, then if P2 is also a passing pressure, end of story, case closed.  If P2 is too low, then the only way that could happen is to let air out of the ball.  It wouldn’t matter at all what the temperature was during the game.

    My whole point being:  why bother trying to speculate on temperature and calculate what the pressure might be inside the ball at 50, 40, 30, 20 degrees, or whatever, if all the team needs to do is demonstrate that the mass hasn’t changed simply by showing that the pressure returns to its original after the game.

  7. Thanks for your kind comment, yes it appears that many people try to do similar calculations without understanding they are done in absolute pressure and absolute temperature scales.
    I can understand so many people are emotional to support their favorite team, but had no idea so few knew the generally accepted science principles and the Lawschool of Physics is something of a mystery to me, I didn’t realize the general population was so uneducated and uninformed in this area, especially all the broadcasters, and media who seemingly have good educations, and the NFL itself who had plenty of time to research these things when they wrote their rules.
    Here’s the actual Science and Calculations.
    FACT: Per the IDEAL GAS LAW, the pressure of a gas is a function of temperature and it’s volume, when the temperature drops (or rises), so does the air pressure inside a football, just like the tires on your car. The ideal gas law is often written as: PV=nRT, where the letters denote pressure, volume, amount (in moles), ideal gas constant, and temperature of the gas, respectively.
    SEE LINK (Ideal Gas Law- attached): http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hb…/kinetic/idegas.html
    Thus, if the volume is fixed and the amount of gas (air) stays the same (like in a football, basketball, or a tire) then as the temperature drops there is a corresponding drop in pressure on the other side of the equation, that’s the science and a law of physics.
    Also, there is a smaller effect of vapor pressure, (air has water in it) and there is additional pressure loss due to the fact that the water in the air will take up less volume with respect to temperature than an ideal gas. Additionally, when it is raining, there is more water vapor in the air, thus a slightly larger effect of vapor pressure loss because of the rain.
    CALCULATIONS: Should be done using absolute pressure and absolute temperature scales. Pressure absolute equals pressure gauge plus atmospheric pressure (14.7 psi). Absolute temperature in degree Rankine equals ambient temperature in degrees Fahrenheit plus 459.67 (add 460 convert to deg Rankine). Using the assumption that volume and density do not change significantly, the ideal gas law results in P/T=constant or P1/T1 = P2/T2 or P2/P1=T2/T1.
    CALCULATION EXAMPLE:
    a. P1 start pressure 12.5 psi
    b. T1 start temperature 72 deg F
    c. T2 end temperature 45 deg F
    d. P2 end pressure is calculated for
    MATH:
    1. P2/P1 = T2/T1
    2. (P2 + 14.7) / (12.5 + 14.7) = (45 + 460) / (72 + 460)
    3. P2 + 14.7 = 25.82
    4. P2 = 11.12 psi
    RESULT:
    Football inflated to 12.5 psi at 72 degree temperature, taken outside at 45 degree temperature, the pressure drops to 11.12 psi, thus a loss of 1.38 psi, due to a 27 degree temperature change only, this does not include vapor pressure loss.
    EXAMPLES:
    Example 1: If the footballs were inflated at 72 degree F to 12.5 psi gauge and then cooled to 45 degree F, there would be a pressure change (loss) of approximately 1.38 psi.
    Example 2: If the footballs were inflated at 75 degree F to 12.5 psi gauge and then cooled to 50 degree F, there would be a pressure change (loss) of approximately 1.27 psi.
    Example 3: If the footballs were inflated at 68 degree F to 12.5 psi gauge and then cooled to 45 degree F, there would be a pressure change (loss) of approximately 1.19 psi
    Example 4: If the footballs were inflated at 80 degree F to 12.5 psi gauge and then cooled to 45 degree F, there would be a pressure change (loss) of approximately 1.76 psi.
    Example 5: If the footballs (for Colts?) were inflated at 70 degree F to 13.5 psi gauge and then cooled to 50 degree F, there would be a pressure change (loss) of approximately 1.06 psi
    CONCLUSIONS: Any football that started out in the NFL’s psi range between 12.5 – 13.5 psi at room temperature, that was later put in 20-25 degree less temperature or more, is no longer in that range. That’s not me, not opinion or theory, that’s the laws of physics. Anything more than a 20-25 degree temperature difference between the time they measured the footballs indoors or greater on the field, that means any football that started out between 12.5 and 13.5 PSI indoors, is going to be less than 12.5 psi on the field. That’s not a guess, that’s not my opinion, that’s a FACT of science and it is indisputable.
    COROLLARY: “IF” the New England Patriots cheated, all the footballs would have measured approx. 10 psi or lower at halftime. 12.5 (psi start) – 1.5 (psi cheat) – 1.3 (psi temp effect) = 9.7 psi. “IF” none measured below 10 psi at half, it is NOT possible for Patriots to have cheated. Hence, the science proves they could not have cheated.
    CONCLUSION: “IF” none of the Patriots footballs measured below 10 psi at halftime, tampering is NOT possible.
    THE NFL HAS A PROBLEM (???) to RESOLVE: The NFL rule/procedures/regulations say the footballs have to be within a narrow 1 psi range 2 hours and 15 minutes before the game and given to the refs (at room temperature) for approval, not outside in the cold. It is a physical IMPOSSIBILITY to maintain that narrow range when there is more than a 20-25 degree temperature difference outdoors. Per the ideal gas law PV = nRT, the pressure of a gas (air) is a function of temperature, so when temperature of a gas (air) is lowered, there is a corresponding drop in pressure. The same applies if temperature is raised in reverse.
    The NFL cannot have a rule about the air pressure of a football, unless it also states the temperature and atmospheric conditions the measurements are to be taken, because the pressure of a gas is a function of temperature and its atmospheric conditions, , it is NOT POSSIBLE for the air pressure of a football to be the same at two different temperatures.
    All we really know through the news reports is the Patriots football’s we’re pumped to 12.5 psi indoors and then we’re taken out outdoors to a 25-30 degree less temp environment by halftime. In Foxboro, it was approx. 51 degrees at game time, 45 degrees at half, and 44 degrees at the end of game.

  8. for those of you that have tried getting on the site past couple nights, we’ve been upgrading our servers and doing intense maintenance so tonight and tomorrow night late 11 PM CT – 4 AM might be out. 

    Probably not, but in case you visit and can’t get on, we’re just making this site much faster.

  9. Scott Hyde Great post Scott.   Two things I would add:
    1.  Bill Nye and others did not use absolute values when using the Ideal gas law.   They initially used F instead of Kelvin and the pressure gauge reading instead of psi + atm (14.7).  That lead to a lot of misleading values, reporting and speculation.  
    2.  It is obvious that the NFL does not have an SOP to control the conditions in which a Football is tested, inflated or re-tested.   If they truly wanted that football to be at a specific psi range during game time then they should have them tested and inflated on the field of play after reaching an equilibrium with the gametime environment.  
    Initially I thought that it would be a relatively quick investigation with a conclusion of a correction to the SOP etc… but these reports of a guy selling K balls and the only football that was truly 2 psi under regulation was in the Cots hands has added a bizarre twist to this whole thing.

  10. You can always spot a butthurt, jealous Pats hater. They’re the ones who believe the Pats are guilty regardless of fact, think they should be banned from the NFL (because their team lost to them) and accuse the NFL front office is “protecting” them. All while claiming it’s because they support the “integrity of the game.” Then their favorite team pulls a HOF * Jerry Rice, integrity goes out the window & gets replaced by “everybody does it.”

  11. In the end, the mission was accomplished; smearing the name of the Patriots, whether they won or lost the Super Bowl. One thing’s for certain, the only casualty to this point has been the firing of an NFL official for selling game balls for profit. 
    Wonderful. There’s your league investigation for you.
    The facts will come out showing this entire Defategate hysteria amounted to nothing. Wells won’t even come close to finding any wrong doing by the team, Belichick or Brady. But two years from now, 50% of casual football fans will believe N.E. intentionally deflated the balls in the AFC title game. And that’s the way it works with today’s sorry-ass media.
    It also wouldn’t surprise me in the least if the nefarious team in this whole thing turns out to be the Indy Colts.

  12. Great post, Thanks
    2 things to add:
    1. Apparently prior to deflategate no-one in the NFL offices ever knew the footballs lost pressure when they were put out on cold fields
    2. The least reported part of this whole story is the Colts apparently stored their football’s next to a propane heater (typically called salamander heater) on the sidelines which kept the footballs by the Colts warmer than they should have been, thus one reason why they would not have lost as much pressure as the footballs for the Patriots
    Hopefully the Wells investigation will look at the video, and determine this issue

  13. vernonfrance6 If you were Aaron Rodgers, or Tom Brady or any quarterback who actually has to pass, you might prefer a ball at say 12.5 psi to a ball at 10 psi. Remember the ball boys are prohibited from heating the balls. In Green Bay, it routinely gets to be below freezing -13 in 1967. A 13.5 psi ball at -13 is around 9 psi at half time. Poor Ted Wells is trying too hard to make his client look good. Maybe Wells should consider the NFL his client and let the air out of Goodell.

  14. @Pete Scott Hyde It takes time to equilibrate. Try this a home, buy a six pack of beer.
    Leave it on the kitchen table for a day at room temperature (72deg F).
    Now put the six pack into the refrigerator (40 deg F). The can is made
    of aluminum, it is high thermal conductivity. Beer is a liquid it too
    has high thermal conductivity After 5 minutes take a beer out, if it is a
    typical American Lager it far too warm to drink. Wait a bit longer say
    half an hour, it will be more palatable (I prefer Old Peculiar myself).
    The point here is that footballs have skin and a bladder and are filled
    with air. None of these allow fast equilibration, because they all have
    poor thermal conductivity. I chose this example because most of my friends who do not understand the thermodynamics of a football, know that you’ve got to leave the Bud in the cooler a long time before it gets cold.

  15. Deleting links that help people learn like a link to the: ideal gas law is censorship. Or a scientists paper on the subject is not spam, it’s not commercial it is access to information that many people need to help prove a point. Just one man’s opinion

  16. vernonfrance6 I think since you wrote these two comments back to back ‘Livefyre’ which is our comments software thought they were spam and only put the one up. so you know we don’t drop comments, here’s yours in full that I just found on it:

    Comment posted directly after the above one from vernonfrance6:

    vernonfrance6Well, it hasbeen quite a while since Shane McLendon wrote these words. The Super Bowl has come and gone and the Pats were lucky and good and the Seahawks were good and unlucky.  And we still have not had any word on the official decision. 
    Is Brady  a cheater who somehow snuck by with another Super Bowl ring and MVP even with regulation footballs since the second half of the AFC title game?
    Or could it just be possible that the physics of the matter explains everything except for the one ball that the Colts lied about and said the guy who intercepted it felt it felt funny when he has since said he said no such thing? That ball turns out to have been the ONLY ball that was significantly low in pressure.
    Scientists are poised with baited breath.  What does not seem important to most of us, which is what happens when a LAW of physics is broken, is earth-shattering news to them.  We would all be shocked if Newton’s apple or anything else fell any way but down.  Physicists would be shocked if a gas under pressure did not lose pressure when moved from a hotter to a cooler environment. It would violate the Ideal Gas Law.  In science nothing becomes a LAW unless there have never been any observed exceptions.
    Is it surprising that Brady acted a little non-plussed when reporters are rudely interrupting him and asking questions like “Have you beaten your wife lately?”  First, he is not used to it.  Second, he probably knew no more about how gases react under pressure than the rest of us did until long after “Deflategate” became an issue.  Third, because that type of questioning is not only rude, it is unfair. Whatever happened to the presumption of innocence until guilty?  Like a lot of our other rules regarding the determination of  justice, it seems to have fallen by the wayside.

  17. vernonfrance6 actually we don’t edit comments on this site. only if they are obvious spam or if they include links which we will take out. otherwise, freedom of speech is very welcome here.

  18. @Pete Scott Hyde Taking the balls in at halftime does not give much time to get warmed up before they have to go back on the field. Still the only seriously low psi according to Mr. Rapaport was the one the Colts said D’Quell thought felt funny.  This is a lie because he did not say any such thing  Why would they lie?  A lie is generally to cover up something, like possibly some little tiny tampering of their own.

  19. Hi Pete, you are absolutely right. The footballs should come back up to original pressure once they had time to come back up to room temperature.
    That’s why when the (dumb) NFL refs who measured them at halftime, when they only have less than 15 minutes at half time, it is impossible for the footballs to measure the same psi on the field or at field temperature (45 degrees at halftime and raining) than they did before the game at room temperature or locker room temperature.
    I believe the original reports that 11 of 12 footballs were between 1-2 psi under 12.5 psi makes sense, because they measured them at two different temperatures, and then the later reports the following week that said 11 of 12 footballs were perfectly fine and within one or two ticks, means they were measured back in the Patriots offices later that week and they were all very close to 12.5 psi except for only one mysterious football. And they were just a few ticks under because the NFL kept taking measurements and it takes a little bit of air pressure out of the footballs to fill up the gauges.
    All the best, Scott

  20. I guess Georgia boy Mclendon did not like my comment yesterday about Aaron Rodgers getting no Flack even though he openly admitted flaunting the psi limits on the football.  What is it with the guys who pile on the Patriots and Brady but the Pickle Packers and MVP Rodgers get a pass?
    This one probably won’t pass muster either.

  21. Scott Hyde Except the the Ideal Gas Laws also say that when the temperature is returned to original, the pressure should also return to original. If in fact the balls were retested inside (as it was reported), at room temperature, and the pressure was still low, then the ‘n’ in your equation would have had to decrease, i.e., deflation.  And after the game, the refs and physicists had all the time in the world to allow the temperature to return to normal.  It shouldn’t have been too hard to prove whether or not any air went missing.

  22. Scott Hyde Now if you exam the rule on videotaping in 2007, it clearly prohibits taping FROM certain locations but not taping those same locations from other places. While Goodell’s old team, the Jets were caught taping from a prohibited location, the result was a confiscated tape. When the Pats taped from a non-prohibited location, they did so with a camera concealed in a hat. While that may not be the spirit of the rule, it clearly states that the camera must be enclosed and have a roof over it. So when Belichick says that he thought he was conforming to the written rule, he was significantly close to the actual letter of the rule. It would appear that in the Goodell kangaroo court, torturing the rules for some perverted view of the integrity of the game is more important than child abuse, spousal abuse, performance enhancement drugs or Jerry Rice’s admitted use of stikum to cheat his way into the record books and cheat his way to all those Montana Superbowls. This current controversy has been called Ballghazi, I prefer Goodellgate II.

  23. From his perspective, he is correct, the Patriots are accused of “deflating” the footballs that’s the point, we know the pressure was reduced, but they assume the footballs were deflated assuming/thinking air was taken out which caused the footballs to be outside of the NFL range on the field, the only problem is the NFL, the referees, and all these reporters don’t understand that the pressure is reduced when the temperature is reduced…. Thus they incorrectly assume intentional deflation, when the pressure had to be reduced when the temperature was changed as the should have by the laws of physics

  24. Yes totally agree, and if you read my conclusion it talks about the pressure of a gas is a function of temperature.
    The problem is we’re speaking to the masses, and people like the my dad (NFL fans) don’t understand the difference between deflation, pressure, and weight, they think it’s all the same. The fact is the pressure of a gas is reduced when you lower the temperature, I think that’s the key point that many need to learn

  25. Scott Hyde Deflation is an inappropriate description, it was pressure that was measured, this not a trivial distinction.

  26. Shane, you’re absolutely right no one wants the investigation to come out because they already know the answer.
    Deflate-gate will be remembered as one of the greatest learning opportunities in sports history, the media and millions of NFL fans will LEARN a lifelong lesson because of Deflate-gate. 
    For example: Mike Florio @ProFootballTalk said on National TV right before the Super Bowl, that “they (footballs) don’t deflate on their own.” Nice try Mike, they actually do deflate on their own, because the air pressure of a football is a function of the temperature it is in.  He must have forgotten his high school science class lessons where they proved the Ideal Gas Law (PV=nRT):  The pressure of a gas (air) is a function of its temperature and volume, and is a Law of Physics.
    Bill Nye, the supposed science guy said the only way to take air out of a football was using a needle. Technically he’s correct, the needle takes air out/in, what he failed to mention was the air pressure of a fixed volume device like a football, basketball, soccer ball or a tire is a function of its temperature, and going from room temperature (approx. 72 degrees) to a 45 degree field at halftime does make a big impact on the air pressure in a football.  Any football that started out at 12.5 psi will lose 1.38 psi, just due to the temperature change alone.  This does not include vapor pressure loss, because air has water vapor in it which would cause additional pressure loss in a colder environment.
    Bill Nye was totally wrong and mislead the public when he spoke to GOOD MORNING AMERICA, trying to discredit Bill Belichick’s science saying: “rubbing the football, I don’t think you can change the pressure.”  Totally FASLE, rubbing the football creates friction, friction creates heat, adding heat changes the pressure of a football.  It’s funny how the football coach was correct explaining the science and Bill Nye the supposed “science guy” was wrong, maybe he was just being a Seahawks fan.
    Sounds like because of deflate-gate Mike Florio, Bill Nye and so many others like: Troy Aikman, Mark Brunell, Cris Carter, Jerry Rice, Jerome Bettis, Joe Montana, Mike Francesa, the New York newspapers, and the NFL will hopefully have learned these things since they misspoke on National TV and reported in the national media.
    Even the NFL is just finding out that their rule/regulations for football pressure with a narrow 1 psi range 12.5 – 13.5 psi is IMPOSSIBLE to maintain when they measure at room temperature and then move the footballs on to a field where there is a 20 degree or greater temperature difference.  Any football that started out in that range, will no longer be in that range, if it is taken into a new environment that is 20 degrees different or more (FACT).  The NFL cannot have a rule regarding football air pressure, unless they also have a rule about the temperature and atmospheric conditions the measurements are taken in.  Something they will surely have to fix and amend for next year.
    See Boston University “real science guy” Martin Schwaltz’s Pressure Calculator:  Football deflation due to temperature change, he is way kool:  http://t.co/9WL6HLE580 
    MUST SEE VIDEO of high school kids proving Ideal Gas Law works and the Patriots didn’t CHEAT:  https://t.co/OJBRilsyxZ
    VIDEO TECHNOLOGY COMPANY proving footballs lose pressure when the temperature is lowered, thus the Ideal Gas Law works in the real world:  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gkKlr7YOlig
    4TH GRADE SCIENCE PROJECT Debunks DeflateGate, Clears Patriots (Video): http://nesn.com/2015/02/fourth-graders-science-project-debunks-deflategate-clears-patriots/
    REAL SCIENCE:  They passed these out at the Super Bowl, its 100% accurate except for spelling of Goodell.  http://t.co/6FFolcKNjn
    Look up the IDEAL GAS LAW and teach your kids the facts of science and the Laws of Physics:  http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/kinetic/idegas.html
    For all of you who just have opinions:  READ these articles and maybe you’ll LEARN something you can teach your children, I doubt these real scientists care about anything except the facts:
    1.  http://scienceblogs.com/principles/2015/01/23/tom-brady-and-the-ideal-gas-law-physics-of-deflategate/
    Note:  Continue to read the comments below in this link, where other scientists chime in
    2.  http://www.realclearpolitics.com/video/2015/01/25/carnegie_mellon_affiliated_lab_weather_alone_could_have_reduced_pressure_in_patriots_footballs.html
    The Laws of Physics are INDISPUTABLE and do not lie, cheat or know whose team is playing, this should have been pretty simple stuff to figure out from day one of this story.
    See these links: 
    1. http://www.profootballlogic.com/articles/the-science-of-football-deflation/?fb_action_ids=10205901519921559&fb_action_types=og.comment
    2. http://m.wcvb.com/…/weather-a-factor-in-deflating-…/30871774
    3. http://www.wcsh6.com/…/deflategate-patriots-foo…/22174475/we
    It all says the same thing, no one CHEATED, just a lot misinformed people who didn’t know the pressure of a gas is a function of temperature.

  27. As a geek you should know that ball inflation was not measured, either before the game or at half-time. The PRESSURE was measured, the only finding is the balls had pressure that did not conform with the rules. Any discussion of inflation or deflation requires a change in the amount of air. Your article merely is as incompetent as the rule. If one wants to maintain a certain pressure, as the rule states, the laws of physics which are immutable, must be obeyed. Your article not only serves to perpetuate the ignorance from whence this moronic rule came, it perpetuates ignorance in our society.

  28. Shane McClendon may be right that the fans and the NFL for the most part, and especially the Colts would like this story to fade into the woodwork.  However, there is the little matter of justice.  When the most successful quarterback of the the 21st Century is accused of a violation of the rules, it is not fair to simply leave him swinging in the breeze, his reputation tarnishing from lack of closure. His boyhood hero and many other retired quarterbacks have basked in the glow of being asked to be relevant again in a pressing issue.  Too many of them have concluded Brady is guilty.  That is why the decision of his guilt or innocence is not something that it would be wise to let lie until 2017 even if it would sit well with this Georgia boy reporter who wants to simplify his own life while he has no empathy for someone else being tried in the court of public opinion.  This Georgia boy is probably also fine with the NDAA decision that it is perfectly alright if citizens are hauled away, locked up indefinitely and never need be brought to trial.  
    Well it is NOT FINE.  It is wrong.  
    The Ideal Law of Gases explains the deflation.  Gases under pressure lose pressure when moved from warmer to cooler conditions. If they did not lose pressure, scientists would be rushing to rewrite the physics textbooks.
    In the meanwhile, there is another quarterback basking in the role of MVP.  A quarterback who openly thumbed his nose at the rule book stating he likes to try to get away with inflating his footballs beyond the limit officially allowed.  No ex-quarterback greats are lined up to crucify him.  No fans are screaming he is a cheater even though they have his word for it.  Personally, I do not give a damn if the footballs are flatter than a frisbee or ready to explode.  I do care that the rule book is considered inviolate if you are a Patriot, and you are guilty until proven innocent, but ignored if you’re a Packer and and innocent though admittedly guilty.

LEAVE A REPLY

Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.